If you are a real estate developer or are going to build a family house in Slovakia, your costs may increase due to new “development fee” introduced by the Act No. 447/2015 Coll. on Local Fee for Development and on Amendments and Supplements to Certain Acts (the “Act”). The Act gives the municipalities a right to introduce by their local regulations a new fee that applies in case of the construction or reconstruction of a ground structure in its territory. The payer of the fee will be the constructor that is constructing or reconstructing in the territory of the municipality, e.g. real estate developers but also individuals building or reconstructing their house. Continue Reading
As of June 2017, the business registers of all EU Member States are now interconnected. The system – called BRIS (Business Registers Interconnection System) – is a joint effort of the EU governments and the European Commission. According to the information provided in the European e-Justice portal, which provides access to the BRIS to individual users as well, you can search for information on companies registered in any EU country, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Norway and the registers can share information on foreign branches and cross-border mergers of companies. Continue Reading
Recently, the Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic (the “Ministry”) published a draft of amendment to the Slovak Commercial Code (the “Draft Amendment”) for public consultation. The Draft Amendment contains numerous substantial changes which we will discuss in series of separate blog posts. This post will look at the provisions relating to capital funds of companies. Continue Reading
The Central Government Portal
The creation of the Central Government Portal (CGP) has signaled the beginning of the digitalization of Slovakia. The CGP is an information system designed to provide users with official electronic communication with public authorities and with centralized and unified access to information resources through a single entry point.
Over the course of a few blog postings, we will look at some of the specifics relating to the digitalization of Slovakia. This post looks in more detail at the electronic mailboxes. Continue Reading
Within the vast range of changes implemented by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the scope of consent is mentioned as one of the most controversial. GDPR lists several basis for personal data processing, including consent of a data subject or legitimate business purpose of a data controller. Here we present a brief overview of the requirements regarding consent for data processing (excluding the consent of children which will be discussed separately).
While the Act on Electromobility is still in preparation, the Polish Minister of Energy brings a Policy for the Deployment of Alternative Fuels Infrastructure in its Easter egg basket. The goals for electricity, along with natural gas (CNG, LNG), are set out for 2020 and 2025.
With effect from 1 March 2017, Czech Act No. 284/2009 Coll. on Payment System (the Act) has been amended in accordance with the Directive No. 2014/92/EU on the comparability of fees related to payment accounts, payment account switching and access to payment accounts with basic features (the Directive).
One of the purposes of the Directive is to provide consumers with non-discriminatory access to payment accounts in any EU member state. According to European Commission, there are more than 3 million people in the EU to whom opening of the payment account has been denied. Moreover, more than 20 million people in the EU would be interested in opening the payment account but do not even attempt to do so, since they are afraid it would be connected with high costs.
In this article, I will describe one of the most significant innovations introduced by the amended Act: the payment account with basic futures (the Basic Account). Continue Reading
The commentators will certainly qualify the following court judgments as landmark rulings since by these judgments the courts shed light on crucial and highly controversial aspects of competition law.
On 28 March 2017, the Ministry of Digital Affairs (the “Ministry”) presented a preliminary draft of some of the provisions of the new Personal Data Protection Act. The remaining part of the Act that is not included in the presented project – which concerns regulations on the new data protection authority’s system position, transitional rules, and regulations changing sectoral regulations – is still being prepared.
The project presented by the Ministry aims at implementing the General Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 on the protection of data (the “GDPR”) in national law. It is worth remembering that the GDPR is, in principle, an effective act of EU law, but in some cases requires national legislative action.
According to the information provided by the Ministry advisor, the Ministry plans to present a final draft of the new Personal Data Protection Act, along with the amendments to the detailed law, in June 2017. The submission of the draft law to the Parliament is planned for autumn 2017, and the completion of its legislative process at the beginning of 2018. The new Data Protection Act should enter into force on May 25, 2018 when the GDPR begins to apply.
Below is an overview of the most important issues with regard to the currently released version of the project. Please note that it is not a final version of the draft so it may be changed.
Protection of female workers continues to be a topical problem, especially in a retail sector where women account for a considerable share of the total workforce. Workers who combine their paid employment with parental functions enjoy a number of entitlements. Most of such entitlements pertain to both employed women and employed men, e.g. parental or child-care leave. Additionally, women are subject to protection against excessively strenuous working conditions throughout their entire working life, which is further strengthened during the period of pregnancy and breastfeeding.
The Polish Labour Code was amended in 2016 by replacing the general prohibition of
the employment of women in strenuous and harmful work with the prohibition that is applicable only to expectant and breastfeeding women. Continue Reading